1822-Denmark Vesey Rebellion.
Gullah Jack Prichard and John Horry were executed. Gullah Jack was accused of not only planning to massacre white Charlestonians, but also to have “endeavored to enlist on your behalf all the powers of darkness.”
During the trial Gullah Jack played the fool so much that some of the judges could not believe he was part of the rebellion. However, as the trial progressed and six witnesses testified against him, Jack’s demeanor changed. He scowled and gave his accusers hard looks. He made motions and designs with his fingers until the judges admonished him for trying to bewitch the witnesses. From the Negro Plot, Gullah Jack was admonished.
In the prosecution of your wicked designed, you were not satisfied with resorting to natural and ordinary means, but endeavored to enlist on your behalf, all the powers of darkness, and employed for that purpose the most disgusting mummery and superstition. You represented yourself as invulnerable; that you could neither be taken nor destroyed, and all who fought under your banners would be invincible. Your boasted charms have not protected yourself, and of course could not protect others … You will shortly be consigned to the cold and silent grave, and all the powers of darkness cannot rescue you from your approaching fate.
Jack had to be “dragged forth to the scaffold … and gave his spirit up without firmness or composure.” Despite this second round of executions, the authorities saw no end in sight. Each new arrest led to more evidence “that the Conspiracy had spread wider and wider.”
On his way for a tour of the Northeast, James Petigru met with Pres. Jackson at the White House and commented that “the old gentleman looked better than I expected.”
1923 – Jenkins Orphanage
By this time, the Jenkins Orphanage Bands were spread out across the eastern United States every year, bringing in more than $10,000 annual income for the Orphan Aid Society. Each band traveled with a male chaperone, often a minister, a cook and a valet to care for the uniforms and instruments. Because they were blacks traveling across the country during the Jim Crow Era of America, the chaperone also carried a letter of introduction from the mayor of Charleston to be given to the mayor or police chief of each town at which they stopped, as proof of their honorable character and intentions. In 1923, the letter read:
City of Charleston Executive Department, July 12, 1923
To the Mayor, Board of Alderman and the Officials of any City in the United States
This is to certify that Rev. D. J. Jenkins, President and Founder of the Jenkins Orphanage of this city, has been conducting an orphanage for over thirty-two years, having since connected with it a reform school and industrial farm and a rescue home for girls only. Reports show that he had handled and trained over three thousand little Negro boys and girls. They have been sent here from all portions of the country to be reformed. This he had done practically entirely on voluntary contributions.
There are four brass bands connected with the work, known as the Jenkins Orphanage Bands. We would appreciate anything you may do for him in letting his boys give entertainments and play upon the public streets of your city. It is raising money for a purely charitable work on a small basis, and I will assure you that he has ever managed to keep the order and conduct of his bands so that they have not become a nuisance, but rather a pleasure for the citizens to hear them play.
Rev. Jenkins has a Board of leading white citizens to keep up with the accounts and advise whenever necessary.
JOHN P. GRACE
The above Jenkins letterhead, 1923, reflected the Jim Crow attitude of the time. The implied racist message of the letterhead is: The Jenkins Orphanage was run by a black man, but there were responsible white citizens monitoring the Orphan Aid Society, assuring donations were used properly. Even after thirty years of success, Rev. Jenkins was still not fully trusted by the white citizens of Charleston.